in ECMAScript

ECMA-262-3 in detail. Chapter 8. Evaluation strategy

Read this article in: Russian, French.

Note: this article was revisited and updated on Feb 10th, 2020


In this small note we will consider strategy of passing arguments to functions in ECMAScript.

In general this part of computer science is known as evaluation strategy, that is, a set of rules for evaluating semantics of some expressions. The strategy of passing arguments to functions is one of its cases.

Many developers are used to think that objects in JavaScript are passed by reference, and the primitives — by value. In fact, this statement appears periodically in various articles, discussions, and even books on JavaScript. In this article we’ll clarify, how valid this terminology is (and whether it’s valid at all) when it comes to JavaScript.

General theory

Before diving into ECMAScript specifics, we need to discuss some parts of the general theory related to parameters passing.

Eager and Lazy evaluation

From the initial evaluation perspective, there are two main strategies: strict (sometimes it’s called eager), meaning the arguments are evaluated before their application, and non-strict, meaning the evaluation happens on-demand, when the arguments are actually used (so-called “lazy” evaluation).

ECMAScript, as well as other languages (C, Java, Python, Ruby, etc) uses eager evaluation for the arguments:

function eager(x) {

eager(y); // ReferenceError: "y" is not defined

In the example above the error is thrown right and before the function call, that is, all arguments should be eagerly evaluated before passing.

The lazy evaluation can be achieved in JavaScript via callbacks:

function lazy(onDemandGetter) {
  console.log(onDemandGetter()); // ReferenceError: "y" is not defined

lazy(() => y); // OK

In the lazy evaluation the exception is throw only when we try to access the variable. In this case, the exception may be thrown, or may not — depending on whether we actually need to use this argument, and whether the variable will exist in the future.

Arguments evaluation order

In addition, the order in which the arguments are evaluated and passed, is also standardized — it’s left-to-right. Some other languages may use reverse evaluation order, that is, right-to-left. And in some languages it’s not even specified, e.g. C++.


function foo(...args) {
  console.log(args); // [1, 2, 3]

  (() => { console.log(1); return 1; })(), // 1
  (() => { console.log(2); return 2; })(), // 2
  (() => { console.log(3); return 3; })(), // 3

Here we pass three arguments, and using the side-effect of logging each argument, we see that the left-to-right order is correctly maintained.

Note: JavaScript uses eager evaluation of arguments, in left-to-right order.

Now let’s talk about the ways of passing arguments to function. Since not all of the discussing below strategies are used in ECMAScript, in our examples we’ll be using a pseudo-code, to describe and show the abstract algorithms.

Call by value

Let’s start from the simplest strategy, known as “by value”.

This type of strategy is well-known by many developers. The value of an argument here is a copy of the passed object. The changes made inside the function do not affect the passed object outside. Technically, a runtime allocates a new memory block, copies the full contents of the passing object into it, and then the function can use this new object from the new location.

// Pseudo-code:

bar = 10
procedure foo(barArg):
  barArg = 20;
// changes inside foo didn't affect
// the bar which is outside
print(bar) // 10

For primitive values this strategy works just fine. However it can quickly become a performance bottleneck, when we have to deal with larger complex structures, that is with actual objects. And that’s exactly what happens in C++ — a larger structure is fully copied to a new location when we pass it by value.

Note: unless you explicitly need to, avoid passing a large object by value in C++. Use a const reference instead.

Let’s create the two generic functions, which will be used to describe our following strategies. The first one, modifyProperties, just updates the properties of the object:

procedure modifyProperties(object):
  object.x = 100;
  object.y = 200;

The second one, rewriteObject, tries to fully replace the object contents with the new data, by assigning to the parameter:

procedure rewriteObject(object):
  object = {newX: 1, newY: 2};

And to reiterate the description of the by-value semantics, both functions do not affect our object:

point = {
  x: 10,
  y: 20
// Still the same: 
print(point) // {x: 10, y: 20}
// Also, still the same:
rewriteObject(point) // {x: 10, y: 20}

Again, passing the full copy of an object may cause big performance issues, especially if we need to work with multiple such objects.

Now let’s see what’s the by reference strategy brings to the table.

Call by reference

In contrast, the by reference strategy receives not a copy, but the implicit reference to an object instead. And this reference is directly mapped (like an alias) to the object from the outside. Any changes to the parameter inside the function — either just the property modifications, or the full rewrite are immediately reflected on the original object.


// Having the same point object:
point = {
  x: 10,
  y: 20
// Update the properties: 

print(point) // OK, changed {x: 100, y: 200}
// Completely rewrite external contents:
print(point) // Yes, rewritten: {newX: 1, newY: 2}

That’s said, passing by reference is much more efficient than passing by value. But in general theory (being just an alias) it allows full rewrite of the object contents. Now let’s see at the combined strategy, known as by-sharing.

Call by sharing

If the first two strategies always were pretty familiar to developers, then the next strategy, and specifically its terminology, was not widely used. However as we will see shortly, exactly this strategy plays the key role in passing ECMAScript arguments.

Alternative names of this strategy are “call by object” or “call by object-sharing”.

Strategy “by sharing” was proposed and first named by Barbara Liskov for CLU programming language in 1974.

The main difference of this strategy is that function receives the copy of the reference to object. This reference copy is associated with the formal parameter and is its value.

Despite using the word “reference” in this description, this strategy should not be confused with the “call by reference” discussed above. The value of the argument is not a direct alias, but the copy of the address.

In this case a re-assignment to a new value does not replace the original object (as would by reference strategy do). However, since the formal parameter still received an address, it can access the contents (the properties) of the original object, and mutate them.

// Again the same point object:
point = {
  x: 10,
  y: 20
// By-sharing can update the properties:
print(point) // Yes, updated: {x: 100, y: 200}
// But it cannot fully rewrite its contents:
print(point) // Nope, still the: {x: 100, y: 200}

This strategy assumes that language in general operates with objects instead of the primitive values.

Additional information on the semantics of this evaluation strategy can be found in the Name binding section of the Lexical Environments article. In particular, operations of Rebinding and Mutation allows to see the described process in detail.

By sharing as a special case of by value

Strategy by sharing is used in many languages: Java, ECMAScript, Python, Ruby, Visual Basic, etc.

Moreover, in Python community exactly this terminology — by sharing is used.

However, in other languages, e.g. in Java, ECMAScript, and others, this strategy is also called as by value, meaning specific value — a reference copy.

By sharing and pointers

Regarding С/С++, this strategy is similar to passing by pointer. Just in C it is still possible to dereference the pointer and change the object from the outside.

However, assigning a new value to a pointer just rebinds it to the new memory block, keeping the old memory untouched. Still it is possible to change properties of the original object using this pointer.

Therefore, making an analogy with pointers, we can obviously see that this is passing by value of the address, and what exactly pointer is. In this case, by sharing is some kind of “syntactic sugar” which at assignment behaves like a “non-dereferening” pointer, and in case of property changes — like a reference, not requiring the dereferencing operation. Sometimes it can be named as “safe pointer”.

С/С++ also has special “syntactic sugar” for this:

obj->x instead of (*obj).x

This idea can also be seen in C++ on the example of the std::shared_ptr. It also allows sharing an object between function arguments, and the outside world (that is, the function can modify the fields of the object), however the re-assignment only changes the pointer itself, and doesn’t affect the outside object. This data type even called as shared_ptr.

Comparison table

Here is a small comparison table, which allows seeing the subtle difference between “by reference”, and “by sharing” strategies.

Strategy Value Can modify contents? Can replace contents?
By value Full contents copy No No
By reference Address copy Yes Yes
By sharing Address copy Yes No

That’s said, they differ only in the assignment semantics: “by reference” can replace the full contents, and “by sharing” instead rebinds the pointer to the new address.

In fact, references in C++ are just a syntactic sugar for pointers. At the lower level they are even compiled to the same exact instructions, and hold the same values — that is, addresses. However, references change the high-level semantics, making the assignment operator to behave differently then pointers, and which are using in “by sharing” strategy.

ECMAScript implementation

So now it is more clear, which evaluation strategy is used in ECMAScript — the call by sharing. That is, we can change the properties of the object, but cannot fully re-assignment it. Assignment only rebinds the parameter name to a new memory, keeping the original object untouched.

However as we mentioned earlier, the generic “by value” terminology for this strategy can be used among JS programmers — again, meaning the value of a pointer. JavaScript inventor Brendan Eich also notices that the copy of a reference is passed.

This behavior can also be seen on a simple assignment. In this case we can see that we have two different variables, but which share the same value — the address of the object.

ECMAScript code:

// Bind `foo` to {x: 10} object:
let foo = {x: 10};
console.log(foo.x); // 10
// Bind `bar` to the *same* object
// as `foo` identifier is bound to:
let bar = foo;
console.log(foo === bar); // true
console.log(bar.x); // OK, also 10
// And now rebind `foo` to the new object:
foo = {x: 20};
console.log(foo.x); // 20
// And `bar` still points
// to the old object:
console.log(bar.x); // 10
console.log(foo === bar); // false

This (Re)binding operation (that is, setting the variable value to an object address) can be illustrated on the following figure:

Figure 2. Rebinding.

Figure 1. Rebinding.

Assignment of one variable to another just copies its address, making both variables pointing to the same memory location. The following assignment of a new value unbinds a name from the old address and rebinds it to the new one. This is an important difference from the by reference strategy, and this is exactly how objects are also passed as arguments to functions.

And once we have an address of an object, we can mutate its contents (updated properties) — and this is operation of Mutation.

Terminology versions

Let’s define the versions of correct terminology related to ECMAScript in this case.

It can be either “call by value”, with specifying that the special case of call by value is meant — when the value is the address copy. From this position it is possible to say that everything in ECMAScript is passed by value.

Or, “call by sharing”, which makes this distinction from “by reference”, and “by value”. In this case it is possible to separate passing types: primitive values are passed by value and objects — by sharing.

The statement “objects are passed by reference” formally is not related to ECMAScript and is incorrect.


I hope this article helped to understand in more details evaluation strategy in general, and also related to ECMAScript. As always, I’ll be glad to discuss and answer the questions in the comments.

Additional literature

External articles:

ECMA-262-5 in detail:

Translated by: Dmitry A. Soshnikov
Published on: 2010-04-10
Revisited and updated on: 2020-02-10

Originally written by: Dmitry A. Soshnikov [ru, read »]
With additions by: Zeroglif

Originally published on: 2009-08-11

Write a Comment



  1. Thank you Dmitry, very informing article.

  2. gr8 ending to a gr8 serie of articles, thanks! (will reread 6 articles again… not including the OOP articles :P)

  3. Hi Dmitry

    Very good Javascript series. Excellent. I have read several of
    your articles, and they are really good.

    One question about this article. Are there languages that use
    call by reference? You don’t give any examples. The closest I
    could think of is in C by using pointers to pointers.

    int f(struct example **x) 
      *x = malloc(sizeof **x);

    or you could wrap a struct inside a struct.

    But are there languages with more direct examples, where f(x) would really be by reference?


  4. @Morten Krogh

    Are there languages that use call by reference?

    First, we should understand that mentioned strategies are just abstract descriptions.

    However, in some languages, the concept and the exact meaning of a reference can vary. The nearest example of by-reference strategy can be shown with C++ and its reference sugar:

    // C++
    void call_by_reference(int& x)
      x = 20; // external *mutation*
    void call_by_pointer(int* x)
      *x = 20; // also external *mutation*
      x = new int; // and this is already *rebinding*
      *x = 30; // mutation of the other memory block
    void call_by_value(int x)
      x = 20; // just local mutation
    int _tmain(int argc, _TCHAR* argv[])
      int y = 0;
      return 0;

    Thus, as said, this by-reference of C++ is just a syntactic sugar (in general, and if to see the assembly generated code) for the by-pointer (which is described above by-sharing) strategy — i.e. for not to dereference a pointer every time.

    The main point is in the operation of assignment. Because often enough there are questions on JS such as “Why if an object is passed by reference I can’t replace it via assignment?”. The answer is — it’s not by-reference (from C++ viewpoint), but “by-pointer” (or “by-value, where value is an address”), where assignment (without dereferencing) just changes the pointer’s address.

    Also take a look on this explanation of a name binding concept, which also accurately explains the difference. Thus, the assignment means a rebinding. And changing of a properties means mutation.


  5. Hi Dmitry

    Yes, but do you know a language where all function arguments are by reference. So for example,

    function f(x) {
      x = 5
    a = 10;

    and now a = 5.

    It would be a weird language to work with.


  6. I’m not completed assent this article. since in the java world, pass value to method. and if do like you said, pass value will not affect outside object. But its definite will change the properties of outside object, because the parameter variable hold the reference of the original object, if don’t change the reference, change any properties will affect outside original object(this strategy more like your article “call by reference”, but it is called pass by value).

  7. And i know in the C# there has two keyword–“ref”|”out”, this can do like you said “call by share”

  8. Hi Dmitry

    Yes, but do you know a language where all function arguments are by reference. So for example,

    function f(x) {
      x = 5
    a = 10;
    and now a = 5.

    It would be a weird language to work with.


    C# can do this

     function f(ref x) {
        x = 5;
     a = 10;

    a will be the 5

  9. @eric

    in the java world, pass value to method … (this strategy more like your article “call by reference”, but it is called pass by value)

    Yes, in Java the terminology “by-value” is used. But the semantics is what is described in this article as “by-sharing”. As noticed above in the last paragraph terminology versions, both terminologies can be used: either “by-sharing” or “by-value when the value is the reference”.

  10. Thanks for your reply. I’m not read very careful, get mixed up “call by reference” and “call by sharing”. In your article, “call by reference” means pass the real object to method, and “call by sharing” ,means pass origin object address copy to method. really need more carefully.

  11. I just use the term “call-by-value” for this — whether the value being passed is the address of an object, or whether it’s an integer, it doesn’t matter. The run-time just copies the bit pattern into the local variable of the called routine. No decision making is needed by the run-time. Note that I don’t actually *know* how the run-time executor is written. But there’s just no need to do anything else.

    As far as the question whether any language allows the calling value to be changed, yeah, several (mostly archaic) languages do, such as Pascal. That concept *is* call-by-reference, and here’s the syntax in Pascal:

    procedure f(var arg1: integer);
            arg1 := 5;
    i = 10;
    // i now holds 5!

    The “var” key work means call-by-reference. Memory for arg1 is not allocated because it’s using the calling routine’s memory location.

  12. @M

    Yes, absolutely correct, if you treat as the “integer” address is passed, then you may name it “by-value” which is correct. Notice though, that runtime nevertheless should distinguish form “simple values” and “address values.

    Beside Pascal, C++ (as a sugar for dereferenced pointer) or PHP has references as well.

  13. Thanks Dmitry.
    I read all of these articles, they are very helpful and clear for whom learning javascript like me.

  14. Hey Dmitry.
    Can you clarify me something?
    (by value)

    var a = 4;
    var b = 6;

    (address 0x00) var a has value of 4
    (address 0x04) var a has value of 6

    (by refference)

    var a = {a: 4};
    var b = a;

    (address of object 0xdd) has few things
    (address 0x00) var a has value of 0xdd
    (address 0x04) var a has value of 0x00 or 0xdd?

  15. @Ref vs val,

    In JS this is abstracted in the environments concept. So really can just be presented as:

    const env = {
      a: 4,
      b: 6,
    env.a = {a: 4};
    env.b = env.a;

    The “memory” references are abstracted away with the environments model — you may think that env.a in first case holds the value 4 directly (not a reference to value 4). Whereas in env.a = {a: 4}, it holds a reference to the object allocated “somewhere else” (on the heap).

    In general (irregardless JS), an environment (symbol table) maps identifiers to memory locations, yes. So in this case even in the first case the env.a would hold a memory address, which stores value 4. And in the second case it would hold a memory address, at which a pointer to the object is stored.

  16. Actually I don’t understand this sentence “This strategy assumes that language in the majority operates with objects, rather than primitive values.”
    What you mean exactly in this sentence? For explaining this sentene can you give me some examples?

  17. Thank you for sharing this 🙂

    But I think there’s a tittle bug in the code at the ECMAScript implementation part that it can not be rebound to the “const” foo.

    // Bind `foo` to {x: 10} object:
    const foo = {x: 10};
    // And now rebind `foo` to the new object:
    foo = {x: 20};